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Philadelphia Toboggan Co. Carousel History; 1904-1941 Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Thursday, 27 January 2011

By Richard A. Gardner
and Barbara Williams

Carousels from the Philadelphia Toboggan Company (PTC) represent some of the finest examples of carousel art in America. PTC was founded in 1904 by Henry B. Auchy and Chester E. Albright, to “build finer and better carousels and coasters.” Auchy received a patent in 1909 for a particularly important innovation for carousels, the Auchy friction drive. It is a tribute to the early engineering skills at PTC that some of these drives are still in operation after nearly a hundred years or more of service.

Carousels from PTC have pleased countless riders for more than a century and continue to do so. Auchy and Albright were among the rare few carousel builders who were not themselves carvers and thus looked to others for carving skills. The works of great wood carvers like Leo Zoller, brothers Daniel and Alfred Muller, Frank Carretta, John Zalar, Salvatore Cernigliaro, and David Lightfoot, among others, can still be found on many of the classic carousels from PTC.

PTC #27 archive photo reads: Three row jumper. Portable Carrousel. Machinery mounted on wagon. PTC Archive photo

Unfortunately, the timeless art and craftsmanship found on these carousels is often a victim of time itself. Weather, often extreme, fires, and normal wear and tear have taken their toll on the carousels from PTC, as well as the carousels from America’s other historic manufacturers.    

The dynamics of the amusement industry for which the carousels were built, makes tracing the history of each of the carousels a moving target, at best. The Philadelphia Toboggan Coaster Company, to which the Philadelphia Toboggan Company evolved, under the current direction of Tom Rebbie, has done a very commendable job at attempting to track the fate of each of its carousels. This was somewhat easier in the early days of the “Golden Age“ of carousels when the carousel manufacturers owned and leased their machines to various operators or parks. After PTC ended its carousel leasing business, the carousels became the properties of independent owners and they were bought and sold as any other business asset. Records were only kept between the parties directly affected by the business transactions. Exceptions occurred when the carousels were put up for sale at public auction. In those cases, the transactions became part of the public record and historians could trace some of the details of the carousels’ movements and values.  

Cherished memories of riding carousels remain with us for our entire lives. Appreciation of the artistry, the individuals, and the industries who created carousels provide endless fascination to many. It is due to that appreciation, the romance associated with carousels, the recollections of carousel aficionados, historians, and the treasured memories of first and second-generation witnesses to the past, that so much of their history can be traced after a century of moves from park to park and owner to owner.   

The interest in carousels and carousel art has led to a significant following of dedicated enthusiasts and preservationists, many who have helped in the documentation of the history of PTC and other classic carousels. The total movements of some of the carousels however, namely the portable wagon-mounted ones, may never be known. Those carousels are among the most difficult to trace.  This article attempts to document much of what is known about early movements and current status of PTC carousels. It will be necessarily incomplete, and, because of the dynamics of the amusement industry, it will be out of date in the not too distant future for a few of the carousels. It is hoped that these descriptions, being a snapshot in time, will prove useful to future historians. Other source documents, including The Carousels of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company by Charles J. Jacques, Jr.(1), A Pictorial History of the Carousel by Frederick Fried(2), Painted Ponies, American Carousel Art by William Manns, Peggy Shank, and Marianne Stevens(3), and Carousel Horses, A Photographic Celebration by Sherrell S. Anderson(4) are all excellent works that go into more of the history of carousels in general, and in the case of the work by Jacques, of PTC history in particular.

PTC #54 armored stander. Roland Hopkins photo

PTC manufactured, or “re-manufactured”, a total of ninety-four carousels. Tracing the history of PTC carousels has been made easier because of engraved numbers on the center-poles. The numbering system, however, became convoluted, as carousels went back to the PTC factory for remodeling or re-manufacture.

Several carousels carried multiple numbers. For example, PTC #9 was remodeled twice at PTC and was identified as #9, #74R, and #86R, the “R” denoting a remanufactured carousel. Likewise, carousel #11 was also #68R, carousel #14 was also #55R, and carousel #18 was also #78R. Others, such as #73R, carried an “R” without identification of what the original number was. There were also two carousels numbered with an “A” or “B” after the carousel number, specifically #88RA and #88RB. The numbering system went all the way up to #93R.  #88, as noted, occurred twice.

Carousel #77R, as well as the carousels numbered after and including #88RA, were machines manufactured by other carousel makers and reconditioned, repaired, or remanufactured by PTC. Discounting the carousels with the “R” identification, PTC appears to have manufactured a total of seventy-five original carousels. The majority of these were machines for parks and amusement centers. Eight of the carousels, #s 26, 27, 28, 32, 34, 37, 40, and 43 were “portable” machines built for carnivals, or traveling shows. It is truly an outstanding accomplishment and engineering marvel that roughly half of these original carousels are still in operation, some after over a century of use; albeit most have undergone significant restoration.  

Tracing the history of the individual PTC menagerie figures and horses and determining the name of the master wood carver of a particular piece is indeed challenging. PTC’s carvers did not sign their works, even though many of the figures later became collector’s items often based on their association with a particular carver’s style. Knowing that a PTC horse came from a known carousel does not guarantee that a certain carver made the horse. There were master carvers and secondary carvers. PTC also used patterns from previous styles in the carving machines that could reproduce a model carved by a master carver.  PTC’s figures were mixes of different styles representing the works of a variety of carvers. Complicating the history of individual figures is the fact that PTC purchased the stock of the Morris and Dentzel companies after they left the carousel business.  Additionally, figures from PTC trade-in carousels were reused.

Two of the more famous PTC carvers worked at other carousel manufacturers and their works can be found on machines made by the companies that employed them.  John Zalar, for example, initially worked for Charles Looff from 1911 to 1914 before joining PTC in 1916. He had a unique style, different from the existing Looff carvings, and carried that style with him to PTC. His carvings are among the most recognizable of PTC’s carousel horses.   

The works of brothers Daniel and Alfred Muller can undoubtedly be found on some PTC carousels. Future research will hopefully reveal the identities of their artistry.  The bulk of their work was done for the Dentzel Carousel Company and for their own company. Daniel and Alfred carved for Dentzel before striking out on their own in 1902(5) or 1903.(6,7,8) The work for PTC as freelance carvers was done under their own company, D.C. Muller & Bro., from about 1903 until circa 1917. During that time, they produced roughly twelve complete carousels before returning to the Dentzel Company around 1918,(3) after the death of Gustav Dentzel in 1909. Their carving style at Dentzel was different from the styles they produced when self-employed. Examples of Muller’s work may be seen on PTC #6, still operating in Burlington, Colorado. It is speculated that Muller carved or at least influenced the style of many figures on #6, including the outer row horses.(3, 9)  PTC #77R, a re-manufactured Dentzel carousel now in a private museum, also carries Muller carvings.

PTC #53 (right) as a roadside attraction at the Super Test Oil Company Amusement Park, Tampa, FL, in 1951. Photo credits: Hillsborough Public Library, Tampa, FL/ Barbara Williams Collection

The complex history of individual PTC carousel figures is beyond the scope of this article.

The listing presented here will include information about the original PTC carousels as well as those carousels “re-manufactured” by PTC. The format of the information includes, where possible, carousel number, manufacturing date, number of rows, number of horses/figures, configuration or mechanism notes, owners and locations, current or final location, and additional notes as appropriate. Where two dates occur in the list, the carousel was manufactured over the course of one or more years. Most of the information presented here, plus photographs of all the operating PTC carousels except #30, can be found in two books by the author of this article.(10, 11).

For additional information on PTC carousels, visit the National Carousel Association’s online index to the Merry Go Roundup or search the contents of back issues of The Carousel News & Trader online.

The following is an abbreviated version of the list of the carousels of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company, PTC, #1-93. The first carousels, PTC #1 - PTC #4 are printed here with the complete descriptions and histories as available. The remainder of the carousels are listed by number, date, fate and/or current location. The full list, including the complete descriptions of the provenance and other known facts about the carousels appears in the printed version of the June 2010 issue along with historic and current photographs or nearly every machine. Subsequent issues of The CN&T include various comments, corrections and clarifications gleaned from information that surfaced as a result of the publication of the list. For the complete list and subsequent additions and clarifications, back issues of The CN&T are available for order. Also, the complete list of PTC carousels, updated, with all dates, descriptions, provenance, photographs and additional historic information is available in the two volumes of books by the co-author of this article; Philadelphia Toboggan Company Carousels, Vol. 1 and Vol. 2 by Richard Gardner. For Richard's PTC books, contact him at This e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it  

PTC #1 1904 (-1961) Fire
3-row. Menagerie.
This, and the first several carousels made by PTC soon after the company was founded in 1904 by Henry B. Auchy and Chester E. Albright, used inventory purchased from the E. Joy Morris Company. PTC #1 first operated at Piney Beach in Hampton, VA. It later moved to Pine Island, Manchester, NH, where it was destroyed by fire on September 31, 1961. 

In 1913, PTC #1’s owner, Louis Berni, paid PTC $1,443.88 for conversion to jumpers.  Two small horses were replaced with horses from either #13 or #21. PTC also shipped its first roller coaster to Piney Beach in 1904. PTC shipped at least the first ten of its roller coasters and carousels to the same parks.  

PTC #2 1904 (-?) Unknown
3-row. Menagerie.
First operated at Vinewood Park, Topeka KS.
Frederick Fried shows a photograph of this early PTC carousel in Topeka on page 92 of his book A Pictorial History of the Carousel. Fate unknown. 

PTC #3 1904 (-?) Unknown
3-row. Menagerie.
First operated in Columbus, OH.
The first likely location was the Zoological Park in Columbus, where a PTC roller coaster (RC #3, the Forest Toboggan) operated. The roller coaster was later moved to Olentangy Park, Columbus, OH. 

The carousel also may have been moved to Olentangy Park. The park already had a carousel, the 1914 “Grand Carousel”, manufactured by William E. Mangels, with carvings by Marcus C. Illions and Sons; the carousel that now pleases riders at the Columbus Zoo. The park was known to have had two carousels at one time. Olentangy Park closed in 1938. Fate unknown.

PTC #4 1904 (-1989) Auction

3-row. Menagerie.
First operated at Athletic Park, New Orleans, LA, then to Manhattan Beach, Denver, CO, then Bergen Beach, Canarsie Shore, NY. Sold at auction by Guernsey Auctions in January 1989. The auction information refers to an E. Joy Morris carousel that was at Skylon Towers, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada.  There are differing opinions as to whether this was PTC #4, or not.  

The Morris carousel at Skylon Tower is said to have been installed at Erie Beach Amusement Park, Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada, from 1904 until 1929. Richard Lohr purchased it from the Glen Park Amusement Concession, Williamsville, NY, when that company ceased operations. (Glen Park was the home of the “Glen Park Casino and Amusement Park,” part of which was destroyed by a fire in 1968.) Lohr leased the carousel to the Skylon Tower about four years after he purchased it. Skylon Tower began operations in the late 1960s. There were 34 horses, a lion, a tiger, and two chariots on the carousel. The conflicting facts regarding this carousel suggest that more research is necessary to determine if the E. Joy Morris carousel sold at the Guernsey auction is the same one referred to by Jacques and Fried.

(The remainder of this list is abbreviated to just carousel number; date built and date of end of operation, or current location for those in operation. The complete list in the June 2010 print edition, adds a wealth of information as to provenance, subsequent locations, carousel size and figures, and details of ownership and/or dispersion of continued operation. For the complete 31 pages list, including current and historic photos representing almost every machine, order you Special June 2010 PTC issue here).

PTC #5 1904 (-?) Dispersed

PTC #18

PTC #6 1905 (-Present) Operating
Kit Carson Carousel & Museum, Burlington, CO.

PTC #7 1905 (-1923) Fire

PTC #8 1905 (-1913?) Fire

PTC #9 1905 (-1980/Present) Dispersed/Mechanism
#74R, #86R - Re-manufactured in 1926, 1929.
The Carousel at Pottstown, Pottstown, PA.

PTC #10 1906 (-1950s) Fire

PTC #11 1906 (-1970s-’80s) Dispersed
#68R - Re-manufactured in 1923.

PTC #12 1906 (-1984) Dispersed
PTC #13 1906 (-1973) Dispersed
PTC #14 1906 (-1988) Dispersed
#55R - Re-manufactured in 1920.
PTC #15 1907-’08 (-Present) Operational/Storage
PTC #16 1907 (-1975) Dispersed

PTC #17 1908 (-Present) Operating
Riverview Carousel, Six Flags Over Georgia, Austell, GA.
For info:

PTC #6. Richard Gardner photo

PTC #18 1909 (-Present) Operating
The Carousel Center Mall, Syracuse, NY.
For info:
PTC #19 1910-’11 (-Present) Operational/Storage
PTC #20 1911-’12 (-1912) Fire

PTC #21 1912 (-Present) Operating
Six Flags Magic Mountain, Valencia, CA.
For info:

PTC #22 1912 (-?) Fire

PTC #23 1912 (-1942?) Dispersed

PTC #24 1912 (-1930s?) Unknown
PTC #25 1912 (-1945) Auction

PTC #26 1913 (-1970?) Fire/Auction
PTC #27 1913 (-?) Auction?/Fire?
PTC #28 1913 (-Present) Operational/Storage
PTC #29 1914 (-1954?)
PTC #30 1913 (-Present) Operating
Luna Park, Melbourne, Australia.
PTC #31 1914-’15 (-1990/Present) Operating
Seabreeze Carousel, Rochester, NY. (#31 Mechanism only)

PTC #32 1914 (-?) Unknown

PTC #33 1914 (-Present) Operating
Cafesjian’s Carousel, Como Park, St. Paul, MN.
For info:  

PTC #34 1915 (-1986) Auction
PTC #36 1915 (-1994) Fire
PTC #37 1915-’16 (-?) Unknown
PTC #38 1915-’16/1934 (-1983) Fire
PTC #39 1916 (-1990/Present) Operating
Lake Winnepesaukah, Rossville, GA.
For info:

PTC #40 1915-’16 (-?) Unknown

PTC #41 1917 (-1978/’83) Dispersed

PTC #42 1917 (-?) Fire
PTC #43 1917 (-Present) Operating
Western Washington Fair, Puyallup, WA.
For info:

PTC #44 1917 (-Present) Operating
Kings Dominion Park, Doswell, VA.
For info: 

PTC #45 1918 (-Present) Operating
Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, WA.
For info:

PTC #46 1918 (-Present) Operating
Cinderella’s Golden Carousel, Disney World, Orlando, FL.
For info:  

PTC #47 1919 (-Present) Operating
Hersheypark, Hershey, PA.
For info:

PTC #48 1919 (-1958) Fire

PTC #49 1919 (-1990/Present) Mechanism
Louisville Zoo, KY. Original mechanism only.

PTC #50 1920 (-Present) Operating
Carousel Park, Hampton, VA.
For info:

PTC #51 1920-’28 (-Present) Operating
Elitch Gardens, Denver, CO.
For info: 

PTC #52 1920 (-1965) Fire

PTC #53 1920 (-Present) Operational/Storage

PTC #54 1920-’21 (-Present) Operating
Battleship Cove, Fall River, MA.

PTC #55R (#14) 1920 (-1988) Dispersed
(See Listing for PTC #14)

PTC #56 1921 (-1939) Fire

PTC #57R 1921 (-1927) Fire

PTC #58R 1921 (-?) Unknown

PTC #59 1922 (-1986/Present) Mechanism
Peddlers Village, Lahaska, PA.

PTC #60 1922 (-1927) Fire
PTC #61 1922 (-Present) Display/Operational
Jane’s Carousel, Brooklyn, NY.
For info:

PTC #62 1922 (-Present) Operating
Santa Monica Pier, Santa Monica, CA.
For info:

PTC #63 1922 (-1977) Fire

PTC #64R 1923 (-?) Unknown

PTC #65 1923 (-1930) Fire

PTC #66 1923-’24 (-1944) Fire

PTC #67 1923 (-Present) Operating
Carowinds, Charlotte, NC.
For info:

PTC #68R 1923 (-1978) Dispersed
(See listing for PTC #11)

PTC #69 1924 (-1958) Fire

PTC #70 1924 (-1980) Auction

PTC #71 1925-’27 (-1980/’88) Auction/Fire

PTC #72 1925 (-Present) Storage/Operational

PTC #73R 1925/’29 (-1945) Dispersed

PTC #74R 1925-’26 (-Present) Mechanism
(See listing for PTC #9)

PTC #75 1925-’26 (-Present) Operating
Gillian’s Wonderland Pier, Ocean City, NJ.
For info:

PTC #76 1926 (-Present) Operating
Valleyfair Carousel, Shakopee, MN.
For info:

PTC #77R 1926-’27 (-Present) Private
1898 Dentzel/Muller Menagerie.

PTC #78R 1926 (-Present) Operating
(See listing for PTC #18).

PTC #79 1926 (-Present) Operating
Kings Island, OH.
For info:

PTC #80. Richard Gardner photo

PTC #80 1927-’28 (-Present) Operating
Holyoke Merry-Go-Round, Heritage State Park, Holyoke, MA.
For info:

PTC #81R 1928 (-1986) Auction

PTC #82R 1927 (-?) Unknown

PTC #83 1930 (-Present) Operating
Idlewild Park, Ligonier, PA.
For info: 

PTC #84 1928 (‘34)  (-Present) Operating
Canada’s Wonderland, Ontario, Canada.
For info:

PTC #85 1928 (-Present) Operating
Paragon Carousel, Nantasket Beach, Hull, MA.
For info: 

PTC #86R 1929 (-Present) Mechanism
(See listing for #9)

PTC #87 1930-’32 (-1984/Present) Mechanism
Figures to Auction in 1984.
For info:

PTC #88RA 1930 (-?) Unknown

PTC #88RB 1934 (-1944) Fire

PTC #89R 1934-’35 (-?) Unknown
3-row. Dentzel.

PTC #90R 1934 (-?) Unknown
3-row. 36 Animals. Spillman portable.

PTC #91R 1940 (-?)  Unknown
2-row. Original manufacturer unknown.

PTC #92R 1940 (-?)  Unknown
3-row. Portable Allan Herschell.

PTC #93R 1941 (-Present) Operating
Soupy Island Carousel, Sanitarium Playground, Thorofare, NJ.
4-row. 61 Horses; 16 standers, 45 jumpers. 1900 Heyn carousel.

Get all the information and photos in the 31 page  special PTC Carousel listing in the June 2010 issue of CN&T.

Sources for this article are many, including the books and articles referenced here (1-41), plus newspaper articles found either on the Internet or at the PTC archives. Numerous letters in the PTC archives, plus notes and lists in the archives, were also used. Tom Rebbie, president of the Philadelphia Toboggan Coasters Company, was gracious in allowing access to the PTC archives. Special thanks to Jean Bennett for her diligent photo research at the PTC Archives and sharing her discoveries with us. Information for PTC #44 came from John Gugliemetti and his daughter Maria, the wife of the author. Articles from prior issues of The Carousel News & Trader were useful in preparing this article.  

Thanks to William Benjamin, Richard Bowker, Lourinda Bray, Fred Dahlinger, Jo Downey, Roland Hopkins, Dan Horenberger, Floyd Moreland, and Marianne Stevens for their additional contributions to the history of PTC carousels. The NCA carousel census is a valuable resource and the efforts of the census chairman, Patrick Wentzel are much appreciated. Marianne Stevens’ update to Fred Fried’s original PTC list expanded the amount of information on PTC carousels. Her work, also as a contributor to this project, has been significantly helpful in documenting their history. Additionally, The National Carousel Association’s archives and Merry Go Roundup magazine, the official publication of the NCA, were important sources of information. 

About the Authors 
Richard Gardner is a retired Ph.D. scientist who spent his technical career in the computer industry, mostly at IBM, Seagate, and Western Digital in the area of magnetic recording technology. He is an avid photographer and has photographed every operating PTC carousel in North America. His interest in carousels grew from a family connection with PTC #44. What started as a simple project to photograph #44 to honor and remember an old Italian gentleman, his father-in-law, who once owned the carousel, grew into a plan to document many of the unique features of every available PTC carousel. Capturing the history of PTC carousels became a necessary part of the documentation process. This article and two books on PTC carousels are the culmination of a four-year effort.

Barbara Williams
’ interest in PTC developed from her association with #62. From 1973 to 1979, she campaigned for better conditions for the carousel. It paid off! In 1980 -1981, the carousel underwent restoration. For the next four years, Barbara was caretaker of the carousel. During this time, the carousel’s building, Looff’s Hippodrome, underwent restoration. It is on the National Register of Historic Places. 

1. Charles J. Jacques, Jr., “The Carousels of the Philadelphia Toboggan Company”, Amusement Park Journal, Vol. 5, No.4, Published by Charles Jacques J. Jacques, Jr, Natrona Heights, PA, (1984).
2. Frederick Fried, “A Pictorial History of the Carousel”, A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., (1969).
3. William Manns, Peggy Shank, and Marianne Stevens, “Painted Ponies, American Carousel Art”, Zon International Design, Inc., (1986).
4. Sherrrell S. Anderson, “Carousel Horses, A Photographic Celebration”, Published by PRC Publishing, London (2000), and by Courage Books.
5. Lisa A. Pomeroy, “Ticket to Ride: Collecting Carousel Art, Going for the Brass Ring: Antique Carousel Horses”, New England Antiques Journal,
6. William Manns, Carousel News & Trader, Vol. 5, No. 3.
7. Fred Fried, Merry Go Roundup, Volume 16 #1.
8. Fred Fried, Merry Go Roundup, Volume 26 #1.
9. Jo Downey, Personal Communication with Barbara Williams.
10. Richard A. Gardner, “Philadelphia Toboggan Carousels, Volume I”, Published by Blurb Books (2010).
11. Richard A. Gardner, “Philadelphia Toboggan Carousels, Volume II”, Published by Blurb Books (2010).
12. Marianne Stevens, Personal Communication with Barbara Williams.
13. European Coaster Club, PTC Database,
14. Carousel News & Trader, June 1989.
15. Niagara Falls Review, Newspaper Article, “1904 Fort Erie Carousel will Run Again at Falls”, Niagara Falls Ontario Library Collection,
16. Letter; Horace G. Frantz, Topeka Funland, to Frederick Fried, December 4, 1964, Fred and Mary Fried Folk Art Archive, Smithsonian.
17. The Carousel News and Trader, April 1997.
18. Bill Benjamin, Personal Communication with Barbara Williams.
19. Roland Hopkins, “Century Old PTC #17 Riverview Carousel from Chicago to Six Flags Over Georgia” Carousel News & Trader, June 1989.
20. Carousel Center, “A Carousel Rich in History, Carousel Number 18”,
21. Carousel News & Trader, “World Record Auction Prices”, April ‘97.
22. Euclid Beach Park Now, “The Carousels of Euclid Beach”,
23. Ron Vidika, “Carousel Auction, Bidding with Love”, The Morning Journal, Cleveland, OH , July 20, 1997.
24. National Carousel Association, “The NCA Census of Operating North American Carousels”,
25. Merit R. Marks, “Letters”, Carousel News & Trader, Jan./Feb., 1999.
26. Barbara Williams, “Philadelphia Toboggan #23”, The Merry Go Roundup, Volume 23 #1.
27. Internet Web Page, “The 1914-16 Mangels-Carmel Carousel at Prospect Park, Brooklyn, NY”,
28. Rusty and Kate Donahue Americana Antiques, “Philadelphia Toboggan Co. Chariot PTC #31 – The Hurlbut Collection”,
29. Charles Walker, Personal Communication, May 31, 2007.
30. Chris Biordi, “The Band Organ of PTC #41 of Wildwood, NJ”,
31. John Gugliemetti, Personal Communication.
32. Jim Weaver, “Hampton VA, PTC #50”, CN&T, Oct. 2008.
33. Mark St. John Erickson, “Restoring Art You Can Climb Aboard: Carousel Gets Sprucing Up”, Daily Press, Newport News, VA, Sept 17, 2008.
34. Lincoln Park Comet Fan Site, “About Lincoln Park, A Little History and Background”,
35. Barbara Williams, “John Zalar, PTC #65, and PTC #66”, Merry Go Roundup, Volume 23 #1
36. Garry R. Bickett, “Carowinds Restores Antique Carousel”, News Release, Carowinds Public Relations and Publicity, Feb. 27, 1979.
37. Marion Lantaff, “The Mesker Park Carousel”, Lant Graphics Ltd, Evansville, IN, 1981.
38. Cynthia Bienieck, “The Carousels of Jefferson Beach”.
39., “Dentzel Carousel”,
40. Jay Ducharme, “From Mountain Park to Heritage Park for Holyoke’s Carousel”, Carousel News & Trader, July, 2008.
41. PTC Archives. 

About the author:
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